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Georgia Military College (GMC) was established in 1879 by act of the Georgia General Assembly "…to educate young men and women from the Middle Georgia area in an environment which fosters the qualities of good citizenship."

The school was originally called Middle Georgia Military and Agricultural College and was ceded state government lands surrounding the Old Capitol Building, which was the seat of government for the State of Georgia from 1807-1868. The Old Capitol Building, then as now, is a central feature of the Milledgeville campus and sits on the city’s highest point. 

The name of the school changed to Georgia Military College (GMC) in 1900.  Legislative acts of 1920 and 1922 severed the relationship with the University of Georgia and made GMC a public institution operating under the direction of a publicly elected Board of Trustees.

In 1930, the official addition of a junior college division to the college-preparatory secondary school finally justified the title, College.   In 1950, the United States War Department designated the institution a "Military Junior College."  Today GMC is one of only five Military Junior Colleges in the United States.

Georgia Military College offers a liberal-arts based, two-year curriculum designed to support student attainment of an associate degree and prepares students for transfer to four-year colleges and universities.  Students with an associate of applied science degree are offered a curriculum designed to support attainment of a Bachelor of Applied Science degree.  For selected college students who enroll in the Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) and preparatory school students in the Junior ROTC program, GMC includes a military training and education component.

The Georgia Military College of today is a multi-campus institution whose mission is as it was at its founding, to produce educated citizens and contributing members of society in an environment conducive to the development of the intellect and character of its students.